Format of Original
Journal of Prosthodontics
Original Item ID
DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12431; PubMed Central: PMID: 26855004
Current methods in handling maxillofacial defects are not robust and are highly dependent on the surgeon’s skills and the inherent potential in the patients’ bodies for regenerating lost tissues. Employing custom-designed 3D printed scaffolds that securely and effectively reconstruct the defects by using tissue engineering and regenerative medicine techniques can revolutionize preprosthetic surgeries. Various polymers, ceramics, natural and synthetic bioplastics, proteins, biomolecules, living cells, and growth factors as well as their hybrid structures can be used in 3D printing of scaffolds, which are still under development by scientists. These scaffolds not only are beneﬁcial due to their patient-speciﬁc design, but also may be able to prevent micromobility, make tension free soft tissue closure, and improve vascularity. In this manuscript, a review of materials employed in 3D bioprinting including bioceramics, biopolymers, composites, and metals is conducted. A discussion of the relevance of 3D bioprinting using these materials for craniofacial interventions is included as well as their potential to create analogs to craniofacial tissues, their beneﬁts, limitations, and their application.