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Materials Science and Engineering: C

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Three-dimensional (3D) printing is currently being intensely studied for a diverse set of applications, including the development of bioengineered tissues, as well as the production of functional biomedical materials and devices for dental and orthopedic applications. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a 3D-printed hybrid construct that can be potentially suitable for guided tissue regeneration (GTR). For this purpose, the rheologyanalyses have been performed on different bioinks and a specific solution comprising 8% gelatin, 2% elastin and 0.5% sodium hyaluronate has been selected as the most suitable composition for printing a structured membrane for GTR application. Each membrane is composed of 6 layers with strand angles from the first layer to the last layer of 45, 135, 0, 90, 0 and 90°. Confirmed by 3D Laser Measuring imaging, the membrane has small pores on one side and large pores on the other to be able to accommodate different cells like osteoblasts, fibroblasts and keratinocytes on different sides. The ultimate cross-linked product is a 150 μm thick flexible and bendable membrane with easy surgical handling. Static and dynamic mechanical testingrevealed static tensile modules of 1.95 ± 0.55 MPa and a dynamic tensile storage modulus of 314 ± 50 kPa. Through seeding the membranes with fibroblast and keratinocyte cells, the results of in vitro tests, including histological analysis, tissue viability examinations and DAPI staining, indicated that the membrane has desirable in vitro biocompatibility. The membrane has demonstrated the barrier function of a GTR membrane by thorough separation of the oral epithelial layer from the underlying tissues. In conclusion, we have characterized a biocompatible and bio-resorbable 3D-printed structured gelatin/elastin/sodium hyaluronate membrane with optimal biostability, mechanical strength and surgical handling characteristics in terms of suturability for potential application in GTR procedures.


Accepted version. Materials Science and Engineering: C, Vol. 84 (March 1, 2018): 148-158. DOI. © 2018 Elsevier B.V. Used with permission.

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