Results of Limited Initial Periodontal Therapy in Smokers and Non‐Smokers
Journal of Periodontology
Eighty‐seven adult patients (54 non‐smokers and 33 smokers) with moderate to advanced periodontitis were treated with 1‐hour full‐mouth subgingival scaling and root planing, with no maintenance recalls, during this 9‐month study. Clinical parameters assessed at target sites included probing depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, gingival index, and plaque index. Data were collected at baseline, and 3, 6, and 9 months. Baseline probing depth for non‐smokers was 5.46 ±.46 mm and for smokers 5.70 ± 0.66 mm. Data analysis (t test) revealed that both non‐smokers and smokers had a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05) in probing depth at 3 months which was maintained throughout the study. At 9 months non‐smokers maintained a mean decrease in probing depth of 0.60 mm and smokers a mean decrease of 0.65 mm. Both smokers and non‐smokers displayed a significant gain (P < 0.05) in clinical attachment level after initial therapy when compared to baseline readings. At 9 months the mean gain in clinical attachment level for non‐smokers was 0.47 mm and 0.59 mm for smokers. Plaque index scores remained consistent for smokers and non‐smokers for the duration of the study. The gingival index at baseline was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in smokers (1.32 ± 0.45) than non‐smokers (1.45 ± 0.40). By 9 months only the gingival index of non‐smokers decreased significantly compared to baseline (1.26 ± 0.37). Bleeding on probing was a prerequisite for target sites at baseline. At 9 months both smokers (0.67 ± 0.39) and non‐smokers (0.78 ± 0.30) had a significant decrease in bleeding on probing compared to baseline. At 9 months there were no significant differences between smokers and non‐smokers comparing probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque index, bleeding on probing, and gingival index. The data have shown that smokers and non‐smokers responded similarly after 9 months to the limited amount of initial therapy provided.