Journal of Biomedical Materials Research
Graphene and its derivatives have been well‐known as influential factors in differentiating stem/progenitor cells toward the osteoblastic lineage. However, there have been many controversies in the literature regarding the parameters effect on bone regeneration, including graphene concentration, size, type, dimension, hydrophilicity, functionalization, and composition. This study attempts to produce a comprehensive review regarding the given parameters and their effects on stimulating cell behaviors such as proliferation, viability, attachment and osteogenic differentiation. In this study, a systematic search of MEDLINE database was conducted for in vitro studies on the use of graphene and its derivatives for bone tissue engineering from January 2000 to February 2018, organized according to the PRISMA statement. According to reviewed articles, different graphene derivative, including graphene, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with mass ratio ≤1.5 wt % for all and concentration up to 50 μg/mL for graphene and GO, and 60 μg/mL for RGO, are considered to be safe for most cell types. However, these concentrations highly depend on the types of cells. It was discovered that graphene with lateral size less than 5 µm, along with GO and RGO with lateral dimension less than 1 µm decrease cell viability. In addition, the three‐dimensional structure of graphene can promote cell‐cell interaction, migration and proliferation. When graphene and its derivatives are incorporated with metals, polymers, and minerals, they frequently show promoted mechanical properties and bioactivity. Last, graphene and its derivatives have been found to increase the surface roughness and porosity, which can highly enhance cell adhesion and differentiation.
Available for download on Thursday, August 01, 2019