Journal of Prosthodontics
Furcations are complicated periodontal defects. Untreated furcations lead to loss of the involved teeth and supporting tissues. It has been demonstrated that regenerative biomaterials are beneficial in reconstruction of the bone surrounding furcation‐affected teeth. These biomaterials range from bone grafts and nonresorbable/resorbable barrier membranes to biologics that are able to trigger inactive regenerative processes in periodontal tissues. Selection of appropriate material(s) to treat furcations is challenging. The aim of this article is to provide a comparative outlook on different biomaterials applicable in regeneration of furcations with a focus on enamel matrix derivative (EMD).
Scientific databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and EMBASE were searched, and 28 articles were found primarily for this specific study. Full texts were studied to identify relevant studies; 17 studies were excluded because of irrelevancy, while 11 main studies were ultimately selected. Other references have been used for general statements.
EMD is a protein complex widely used in the regeneration of different periodontal defects. To assess the effects of EMD for treatment of root furcations, clinical studies involving EMD with and without barrier membranes and bone grafts were selected and compared. Briefly, this study reveals that when EMD is combined with open flap debridement (OFD), guided tissue regeneration (GTR), or bone grafting (BG), the amount of class II furcations converted to class I increases significantly. EMD also reduces tissue swelling and patient discomfort after treatment.
This study provides evidence to find the best combination of biomaterials to treat furcation defects. The best results are obtained if EMD is combined with β‐TCP/HA alloplastic bone grafts.
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