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Dove Medical Press

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Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry

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Purpose: This pilot study investigated the prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) in third-grade school children in Milwaukee Wisconsin, USA.

Methods: A convenience sample of third-grade school children in the Milwaukee Public School System (MPS) participated in the study. Calibrated examiners trained on the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) MIH recommendations examined the children between December 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015. Children were examined at their schools using a flashlight and mirror after receiving consent from parents/caregivers and assent from each child. Findings were recorded onto a standardized form by one of five trained examiners. Summary statistics were calculated, and bivariate analysis were done to identify factors associated with MIH.

Results: A total of 375 children (average age =8.66 years, range 7–12) were examined, 60% females and 41% Hispanics. Overall, 36 (9.6%) of the children demonstrated findings consistent with the diagnosis of MIH. Among the teeth with MIH defects, severe defects were higher in lower molars. There were no statistically significant differences between those with and without MIH by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status in this study.

Conclusion: The study revealed that 9.6% of the children examined were affected by MIH. Future studies should focus on statewide and/or nationwide surveys in the United States to ascertain the extent and severity of the condition.


Published version. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry, Vol. 2019, No. 11 (May 2019): 109-117. DOI. © 2019 Davenport et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

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