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Dove Medical Press

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International Journal of Nanomedicine

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Here, bismuth-based nanomaterials (Bi-based NMs) are introduced as promising theranostic agents to enhance image contrast as well as for the therapeutic gain for numerous diseases. However, understanding the interaction of such novel developed nanoparticles (NPs) within a biological environment is a requisite for the translation of any promising agent from the lab bench to the clinic. This interaction delineates the fate of NPs after circulation in the body. In an ideal setting, a nano-based therapeutic agent should be eliminated via the renal clearance pathway, meanwhile it should have specific targeting to a diseased organ to reach an effective dose and also to overcome off-targeting. Due to their clearance pathway, biodistribution patterns and pharmacokinetics (PK), Bi-based NMs have been found to play a determinative role to pass clinical approval and they have been investigated extensively in vivo to date. In this review, we expansively discuss the possible toxicity induced by Bi-based NMs on cells or organs, as well as biodistribution profiles, PK and the clearance pathways in animal models. A low cytotoxicity of Bi-based NMs has been found in vitro and in vivo, and along with their long-term biodistribution and proper renal clearance in animal models, the translation of Bi-based NMs to the clinic as a useful novel theranostic agent is promising to improve numerous medical applications.


Published version. International Journal of Nanomedicine, Vol. 15 (September 25, 2020): 7079-7096. DOI. © 2020 Dove Medical Press. Used with permission.

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