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Journal of Periodontology

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This study aimed to determine and compare soft tissue healing outcomes following implant placement in grafted (GG) and non-grafted bone (NGG).


Patients receiving single implant in a tooth-bound maxillary non-molar site were recruited. Clinical healing was documented. Volume and content of wound fluid (WF; at 3, 6, and 9 days) were compared with adjacent gingival crevicular fluid (GCF; at baseline, 1, and 4 months). Buccal flap blood perfusion recovery and changes in bone thickness were recorded. Linear mixed model regression analysis and generalized estimating equations with Bonferroni adjustments were conducted for repeated measures.


Twenty-five patients (49 ± 4 years; 13 males; nine NGG) completed the study. Soft tissue closure was slower in GG (P < 0.01). Differential response in WF/GCF protein concentrations was detected for ACTH (increased in GG only) and insulin, leptin, osteocalcin (decreased in NGG only) at day 6 (P ≤0.04), with no inter-group differences at any time(P > 0.05). Blood perfusion rate decreased immediately postoperatively (P < 0.01, GG) followed by 3-day hyperemia (P > 0.05 both groups). The recovery to baseline values was almost complete for NGG whereas GG stayed ischemic even at 4 months (P = 0.05). Buccal bone thickness changes were significant in GG sites (P ≤ 0.05).


History of bone grafting alters the clinical, physiological, and molecular healing response of overlying soft tissues after implant placement surgery.


Accepted version. Journal of Periodontology, Vol. 92, No. 2 (February 2021): 234-243. DOI. © 2021 Wiley. Used with permission.

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