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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

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In this work, graphite/gold nanoparticles (G/AuNPs) were synthesized through a facile chemical method, and its potential application for direct protein attachment for electrochemical detection of carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated. The preparation of G/AuNPs electrodes was optimized by synthesizing the nanoparticles in different concentration of HAuCl4.3H2O at various temperatures. The G/AuNPs electrode was subsequently modified by four types of mercaptopropionic acid, including 1-mercaptopropionic, 3-mercaptopropionic, 6-mercaptopropionic, and 11-mercaptopropionic acid, to achieve the best structure for protein attachment. Visible absorption and electrochemical studies showed that 3-mercaptopropionic acid possesses the best performance regarding the electrical conductivity between electrode and protein redox center. The cyclic voltammetry results revealed that the modified electrode has an appropriate performance for CO detection at very low concentrations while keeping a linear response. The limit of detection for the modified electrode was calculated to be about 0.2 ppb. Finally, the interactions of cytochrome C and carbon monoxides were simulated using molecular dynamics (MD), and the effect of protein conformation changes on the electrochemical signal was thoroughly examined. The simulation results suggested that the proposed electrochemical sensor has an acceptable performance for the detection of CO due to less fluctuation of amino acids near the protein chain in the presence of CO molecules.


Accepted version. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 27, No. 34 (December 2020): 43202-43211. DOI. © 2020 Springer. Used with permission.

Meisam Omidi was affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University at the time of publication.

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