Document Type




Format of Original

7 p.

Publication Date

Winter 2014



Source Publication

Journal of Public Health Dentistry

Source ISSN



Objectives: Most studies on the provision of dental procedures have focused on Medicaid enrollees known to have inadequate access to dental care. Little information on private insurance enrollees exists. This study documents the rates of preventive, restorative, endodontic, and surgical dental procedures provided to children enrolled in Delta Dental of Wisconsin (DDWI) in Milwaukee.

Methods: We analyzed DDWI claims data for Milwaukee children aged 0-18 years between 2002 and 2008. We linked the ZIP codes of enrollees to the 2000 US Census information to derive racial/ethnic estimates in the different ZIP codes. We estimated the rates of preventive, restorative, endodontic, and surgical procedures provided to children in different racial/ethnic groups based on the population estimates derived from the US Census data. Descriptive and multivariable analysis was done using Poisson regression modeling on dental procedures per year.

Results: In 7 years, a total of 266,380 enrollees were covered in 46 ZIP codes in the database. Approximately, 64 percent, 44 percent, and 49 percent of White, African American, and Hispanic children had at least one dental visit during the study period, respectively. The rates of preventive procedures increased up to the age of 9 years and decreased thereafter among children in all three racial groups included in the analysis. African American and Hispanic children received half as many preventive procedures as White children.

Conclusion: Our study shows that substantial racial disparities may exist in the types of dental procedures that were received by children.


Accepted version. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, Vol. 74, No. 1 (Winter 2014): 50-56. DOI. © 2014 Wiley. Used with permission.

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: "Racial/ethnic disparities in provision of dental procedures to children enrolled in Delta Dental insurance in Milwaukee, Wisconsin," which has been published in final form here: DOI. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance With Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving

Included in

Dentistry Commons