Date of Award

Spring 1993

Document Type

Dissertation - Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Throughout the Christian era, John 3:5, with its statement about being begotten of water and spirit, has been interpreted as referring to the rite of Christian baptism as practiced within the Johannine community. Some modern exegetes, as will be shown, have espoused different views, based on their presuppositions regarding the nature and composition of the Fourth Gospel; but in the main it is still commonplace to identify this "water" with an actual physical ablution that would have been considered normative by the first readers of the Fourth Gospel...



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