Date of Award

Fall 1999

Document Type

Dissertation - Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Juergensen, James

Second Advisor

Cepelka, Angeline

Third Advisor

Riordan, Tim


Preparation for leadership has taken on a variety of forms. Those who prepare for leadership in the armed forces generally complete programs steeped in tradition but which are regularly augmented and modified by the lessons learned in combat. In business and education, by comparison, the quest for leadership training models has given rise to a new type of literature focusing on the science and art of leadership, sometimes augmented by experimentation. Futurists who predict rapid and constant change have added a new dimension of insecurity to the entire leadership process. There has also been a shift from a top-down control emphasis to a bottom-up empowerment that focuses on the leader as servant. Leaders in place and those aspiring to replace them all deal with the same uncertainties. Leaders must help others successfully negotiate the uncertain paths toward the future-paths that are made difficult by mistakes, controversy, prejudices, resistance, opposition, anger, and even success. Much of the leadership literature gives encouragement as it suggests that when others are treated with dignity and respect they will cooperate with the leader. In reality, human beings often hold predispositions which make them antagonists in situations. When a leader encounters a person whose strongly held predisposition or world view is in conflict with that of the leader or the organization, conflict results, sometimes to the bewilderment of the leader. Antagonistic reactions are especially predictable during times of significant change. As a student of leadership, as well as a practitioner, I have witnessed the effectiveness of various leadership strategies as well as the failures experienced by everyone who dares to lead. I enjoy the study of history and have read my share of descriptions of military, political, and educational leaders. My heroes, however, are those who are not famous but who, each day, show that "uncommon valor" continues to be a "common virtue" among those who courageously lead in difficult situations. I have learned from all those who have been my leaders and from those who have allowed me to be their leader. Some lessons were better than others, all shaped my life...



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