Date of Award

Spring 2008

Document Type

Dissertation - Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Policy and Leadership

First Advisor

Lowe, Robert

Second Advisor

Schweizer, Heidi

Third Advisor

Pink, William T.


Early research on the language differences of men and women positioned men and women's language as dichotomous, identifying specific linguistic features as characteristic of male or female language. Men interrupt more (West & Zimmerman, 1983). Women apologize more (Holmes, 1995). Men use more hostile verbs (Hoyt & Summers, 1970). Women use more positive emotive adjectives such as divine and gorgeous (Kramer, 1974). Men use challenges (Maltz & Borker, 1998). Women pay and receive more compliments (Holmes, 1995). Men use more interjections (Eakins & Eakins, 1978). Women use more conjunctions (Eakins & Eakins, 1978). Men use more expletives and obscenities (Baily & Timm, 1976; Frank, 1978). Women use more tag questions (Fishman, 1983). Women use more words that indicate feeling or emotion (Gieser, Gottschalk, & Watkins, 1959). Men use more words implying time, space and quantity (Gieser, Gottschalk, & Watkins, 1959). Women use more hedges and intensifiers (Lakoff, 1975). Men use language to assert themselves (Maltz & Borker, 1998). Women use talk to develop and maintain relationships (Holmes, 1995)...



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