Date of Award

Fall 2006

Document Type

Dissertation - Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Marten, James

Second Advisor

Avella, Steven

Third Advisor

Jablonsky, Thomas


"I am a high school boy ... my father earns a salary that keeps us living, but does not allow for extras," a boy named Art explained in 1937. He wrote the Milwaukee Journal protesting the new fees the city had placed on recreational facilities to make up for budget cuts. "The new tax slammed on tennis courts and swimming pools takes away from me the two sports I enjoy most .... Last summer I was frequently (almost daily) in the habit of swimming in the afternoon and playing tennis in the evening, or vise versa." Art argued that the city recreation facilities were established to keep people out of mischief and off the streets, but the new fees would prevent him and other children from using the pools and tennis courts. Art wondered what he would do with his extra free time. "This summer I will probably have to lounge about street corners, pool halls or stroll through the parks trying to 'pick up' girlfriends. It does not sound pretty, but forced idleness is not pleasant."'...



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