Date of Award

Spring 1983

Document Type

Dissertation - Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Ivanoff, John

Second Advisor

Siderits, Mary A.

Third Advisor

Davis, Anne


Forty-nine children who had been placed in two different early intervention programs for high risk young children in an urban school system were evaluated at the end of programming on measures of intellectual functioning, academic achievement, receptive language and general adjustment. One program had been established to deal with language impaired children and the other with general developmental delays. Neither group was considered to be retarded. A group of 30 children randomly selected but matched for the proportion of race, sex and age was established as a control. The purpose of the research was to explore the changes that had taken place over the course of the preschool experience and to determine if the children in the "experimental" groups had the potential for success in regular class programming. Emphasis was placed upon the relationship between intellectual functioning and achievement measures and between receptive language and intellectual functioning. Concern was directed to the level of adjustment in all groups. A questionnaire designed to elicit attitudes in very young children towards the self and towards school was developed. Statistical procedures utilized chi-square, one-way and multivariate analysis of variance as well as tests of unequal variance. Repeated measures design was utilized to deal with pre- and post-experience results. Significance was determined at the .05 level. Patterns of functioning that initially discriminated between the two experimental groups were still in existence at the end of programming. Intervention improves functioning at some point, but it does not result in average functioning unless the potential for this functioning is already present. Significant differences were found between all three groups on measures of intellectual functioning. Academic functioning for all groups was commensurate with tested intellectual functioning. Both the control and the language impaired group were significantly different from children in the non-categorical developmentally delayed group on measures of academic achievement and receptive language. Significant growth based on measures of receptive language had occurred. There was no difference between receptive language and intellectual functioning in any group. Both experimental groups were different from the control group on measures of adjustment and attitudes toward school. Implications for further research in the area of adjustment are present as well as suggestions for further academic support and programming.



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