A Comparison of the Effects of Two Programs of Elementary Physical Education on the Self Concept, Knowledge of Physical Activity and Physical Fitness of Third Grade Children
Date of Award
Dissertation - Restricted
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
The purpose of this study was to compare the main effects and interactions of a standard program of physical education, a program of movement education and no planned program of physical education upon the level of physical fitness, self-concept; knowledge of physical activity and time spent in purposeful activity of third grade children. The study was conducted in a school in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Seventy-three students served as subjects. The study was of 16 weeks duration, Three upper primary (grade three) classes were randomly assigned, as intact units; to one of the three programs. Following pretests of self-concept, knowledge of activity and physical fitness, measured by the Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale, a modified version of the AAHPER Cooperative Physical Education Test, Form J+A and The CARPER Fitness-Performance Test respectively, classes assigned to the standard program of physical education and the program of movement education received thirteen weeks of instruction (26 thirty minute lessons) while the class assigned to the control condition received no instruction, The two study programs were taught by different instructors. During this experimental stage, subjects of the two study programs were observed and timed during three randomly selected lessons each to determine the amount of time spent in teacher-directed or teacher-guided activity during the observed lessons. The standard program of physical education consisted of basic locomotor, gymnastic, ball handling, dance and rope jumping skills taught by means of teacher-directed explanation, demonstration, practice and application to low organized games, The program of movement education consisted of teacher-guided student exploration of selected elements of movement organized into themes of force absorption, force production, pathways in space and contrasts in movement. At the conclusion of the experimental stage all members of all classes were given the same tests performed as pretests and in the same sequence and manner...