Date of Award

Fall 1982

Document Type

Dissertation - Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Tagatz, Glen E.

Second Advisor

Dupuis, A.

Third Advisor

Ivanoff, John


Special education had its roots in early 19th century European medical practice (Hewett & Forness, 1977). Today it has expanded in the United States, with the enactment of P.L. 94-142 in 1975, to include provision for a free, appropriate education for every handicapped individual (Mandell & Fiscus, 1981). This evolution from a medical model to an educational model, with a guarantee of educational services, has been accompanied by confusion regarding the nature of the services that are to be provided (Hallahan & Kauffman, 1978). Intervention services that have been undertaken with exceptional (special) students have included medication, perceptual- motor training, and, most prominently, applications of behavioral theory (Keogh & Glover, 1980). Hammill (1979) believes that special education's emphasis on behaviorism, behavioral objectives, behavior modification, and skill-based programs has peaked and that we are moving into an age that is rediscovering cognitive principles...



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