Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Norman E. Hoffman

Second Advisor

Sheldon E. Cremer


This dissertation has been written to describe some of my research efforts during my years as a graduate student at Marquette University. I have divided the work into several chapters, each with their own experimental and discussion sections, to facilitate reading. As with any research project, the accumulation and interpretation of results naturally leads to a multiplication of ideas and projects. I have tried whenever possible to consolidate these ideas into a concise framework. Inevitably it was necessary to omit certain topics for the sake of clarity.



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