Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Darryl D. Siemer

Second Advisor

Thomas C. Ehlert

Third Advisor

Michael D. Ryan

Fourth Advisor

Kazuo Nakamoto

Fifth Advisor

Thomas K. Ishii


The importance of trace analysis of elements in geological and environmental samples is well known. A study of trace elements in various rocks can give valuable information as to their history and formation. For example, the distribution of trace elements and their relative proportions in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks have been useful in establishing the genetic relationship between various rocks and between rocks and ore deposits (1) - (5). For the past ten years or so, research interest has been focused on the environment. This has been caused partly by the increasing pollution of air, water and soil and partly by the development of several very powerful analytical techniques. This has helped us to isolate and to understand the role of many elements which are present only in trace quantities. The concentration of these elements are often at parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb) or lower levels. The desirable requirements for the analytical system are speed, accuracy and reasonably low cost.



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