Document Type




Format of Original

10 p.

Publication Date



Elsevier (WB Saunders)

Source Publication

Journal of Pediatric Nursing

Source ISSN



The purpose of this study was to compare the early child-rearing practices between mothers of young children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and mothers of healthy children. In addition, maternal stress, parental developmental expectations, and the early behavioral and emotional development of their children were explored. Maccoby’s (1992) socialization theory emphasizing the reciprocal nature of mother-child interactions provided the framework for this study. Findings from quantitative self-report measures and videotaped parent-child interactions showed a remarkable similarity between mothers of children with CHD and mothers of healthy children. In contrast, qualitative data revealed important differences with mothers of CHD children reporting high levels of vigilance with their children. The important role of promoting the principle of normalization among mothers of children with CHD and ensuring a sufficient support system is discussed.


Accepted version. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, Vol. 17, No. 3 (June 2002): 174-183. DOI. © 2002 Elsevier (WB Saunders). Used with permission.

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in the Journal of Pediatric Nursing. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Pediatric Nursing, VOL 17, ISSUE 3, June 2002, DOI.

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