Document Type




Publication Date



Public Library of Science (PLoS)

Source Publication

PLoS One

Source ISSN




Large-cage experiments indicate pyriproxifen (PPF) can be transferred from resting sites to aquatic habitats by Anopheles arabiensis - malaria vector mosquitoes to inhibit emergence of their own offspring. PPF coverage is amplified twice: (1) partial coverage of resting sites with PPF contamination results in far higher contamination coverage of adult mosquitoes because they are mobile and use numerous resting sites per gonotrophic cycle, and (2) even greater contamination coverage of aquatic habitats results from accumulation of PPF from multiple oviposition events.

Methods and Findings

Deterministic mathematical models are described that use only field-measurable input parameters and capture the biological processes that mediate PPF autodissemination. Recent successes in large cages can be rationalized, and the plausibility of success under full field conditions can be evaluated a priori. The model also defines measurable properties of PPF delivery prototypes that may be optimized under controlled experimental conditions to maximize chances of success in full field trials. The most obvious flaw in this model is the endogenous relationship that inevitably occurs between the larval habitat coverage and the measured rate of oviposition into those habitats if the target mosquito species is used to mediate PPF transfer. However, this inconsistency also illustrates the potential advantages of using a different, non-target mosquito species for contamination at selected resting sites that shares the same aquatic habitats as the primary target. For autodissemination interventions to eliminate malaria transmission or vector populations during the dry season window of opportunity will require comprehensive contamination of the most challenging subset of aquatic habitats (Clx) that persist or retain PPF activity (Ux) for only one week (Clx → 1, where Ux = 7 days). To achieve >99% contamination coverage of these habitats will necessitate values for the product of the proportional coverage of the ovipositing mosquito population with PPF contamination (CM) by the ovitrap-detectable rates of oviposition by wild mosquitoes into this subset of habitats (mlx,z,d), divided by the titre of contaminated mosquitoes required to render them unproductive (Tlx,z,d), that approximately approach unity (CMmlx,z,d / Tlx,z,d → 1).


The simple multiplicative relationship between CM and mlx,z,d / Tlx,z,d, and the simple exponential decay effect they have upon uncontaminated aquatic habitats, allows application of this model by theoreticians and field biologists alike.


Published version. PLoS One, Vol. 10, No. 7 (2015). DOI. © 2015 Kiware et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.