Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
IEEE Transaction on Electron Devices
A stochastic dead-space model for impact ionization is developed and used to study the effect of the soft nature of the ionization capability of carriers on the excess noise factor of avalanche photodiodes. The proposed model is based on the rationale that the gradual, or soft, transition in the probability density function (PDF) for the distance from birth to impact ionization can be viewed as that resulting from uncertainty in the dead space itself. The resulting soft PDF, which is parameterized by a tunable softness parameter, is used to establish the limitations of the existing hard-threshold ionization models in ultrathin multiplication layers. Calculations show that for a fixed operational gain and fixed average dead space, the excess noise factor tends to increase as a result of the softness in the PDF in very thin multiplication layers (viz, <70 nm), or equivalently, under high applied electric fields (viz., >800 kV/cm). A method is proposed for extracting the softness parameter from noise versus multiplication measurements.
Kwon, Oh-Hyun; Hayat, Majeed M.; Campbell, Joe C.; Saleh, Bahaa E.A.; and Teich, Malvin Carl, "Effect of stochastic dead space on noise in avalanche photodiodes" (2004). Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Research and Publications. 532.
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