Date of Award


Degree Type

Master's Essay - Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering

First Advisor

Richard Guenthner


The most common mode of transit service in United States cities is the motor bus. Over 65 percent of all transit riders are carried on motor buses operated by 1022 transit systems.<1> In 1978, buses carried 71 percent of urban mass transportation passengers. Heavy rail vehicles carried 23 percent.<2> Trolley buses, light rail vehicles, and commuter railroad carried only 0.8, 1.3, and 4.3 percent of mass transportation ridership, respectively. Except for some big cities which heavily rely on railroads and subways, bus transit is the most important mode of urban mass transportation. However, patronage on bus transit has declined since 1945. Ridership has stabilized only after government set programs to revitalize urban mass transportation. Bus transit improvements are urgently needed to increase ridership.