Date of Award


Degree Type

Master's Essay - Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)




Of all the drama in football history, the broadcast of the 1941 Giant-Dodger football game had a more stunning effect than any other, for a reason that stretched far beyond the confines of the Polo Grounds in New York. Thousands listened intently as the announcer related the following account:

"The Dodgers are ready to kick off now. They've just scored. Ace Parker did it. Jes Sutherland's boys lead the Giants, 7-0. Here's the whistle, Merle Condon comes up, he boots it. It is a long one coming down to around the three yard line, Ward Cuff takes it and he's coming up to his left, he's over the ten. Nice block there by Lehman. Cuff's still going, he's up to the twenty-five. Now he's hit and hit hard about the twenty-seven yard line. Bruiser Knard made the tackle. We interrupt this broadcast to bring you this important bulletin from the United Press. FLASH: Washington, the White House announces Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Stay tuned to WOR for further developments."

The bursting Japanese bombs and torpedoes left three and one-half thousand Americans dead or wounded. The powerful American Pacific fleet lay in shambles. Also left in the debris of this devastating surprise attack was the shattered corpse of the non-interventionist opposition. One of the greatest debates in the history of American foreign policy had come to an end.