Date of Award


Degree Type

Master's Essay - Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)



First Advisor

Nick J. Topetzes

Second Advisor

Edward F. DeRoche


Guidance in the American secondary school has been developing for half a century, but guidance in the elementary school is of more recent origin. Late in starting, the growth of elementary school guidance in the past decade has been rapid, but in multiple and uncharted directions. School administrators, organizations that work with children, and the 1960 White House Conference on Children and Youth have all sought to extend counseling services to meet the needs of the pre-adolescent. The variety of professional school people who have assumed responsibility in this area and the varying administrative practices found reflect the confusion which now exists.