Date of Award
Master's Essay - Restricted
Master of Science (MS)
Verbal and nonverbal behaviors of four women with terminal cancer were described and categorized utilizing a framework based on an operational definition of hopelessness. Defining hope as "an expectation greater than zero of obtaining a goal", one of the subjects demonstrated behaviors indicating advanced progression of hopelessness; one subject reversed affect through goal redirection and became more hopeful; one subject continuously remained on the hopeful side of the continuum; and one subject demonstrated progressions and regressions midway along the continuum. Based on the indicators, nursing strategies were proposed at each level of the continuum. Conclusions reached included a positive response to the questions posed for research; that is, behavioral indicators of developing hopelessness can be identified, categorized , and utilized as a basis for the proposal of nursing strategies.
Czarnecki, Candace Kay, "Hope and Hopelessness: Indicators of the Nursing Diagnosis" (1980). Master's Essays (1922 - ). 164.