Date of Award


Degree Type

Master's Essay - Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Mathematical and Statistical Sciences


There are many examples of physical phenomena for which experimental evidence indicates approximately normal distributions. In biology, many physical measurements on living organisms, tabulated for a large population, exhibit a nearly normal frequency distribution. In physics, the results of a series of attempts at the exact measurement of a quantity are usually very nearly normally distributed. In ballistics, the pattern of hits from a large number of shots fired at a fixed target usually forms something that resembles a normal distribution. In thermodynamics, the distribution of molecular velocities in an ideal gas is very close to normal. And finally in the educational field, the distribution of a hetergeneous class approaches closely to a normal one. We call this curve in the educational field the normal curve.