Date of Award

Spring 1996

Degree Type

Master's Essay - Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)




This paper examines the difficulties presented by the inclusion of the details of blood and water flowing from the side of Jesus in John's passion narrative. Specifically, it seeks to determine how these elements can best be interpreted in light of Johannine theology. After reviewing traditional proposals and examining these words within the Gospel, I propose that their meanings stem from an association between Jesus and the OT exemplars of the Passover and Temple as described by Pentateuchal and Prophetic literature. This relationship is confirmed by a third archetype, which uses Josiah as a hermeneutical key for understanding the Johannine Jesus.