Date of Award

Summer 1981

Degree Type

Master's Essay - Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Topetzes, Nick J.

Second Advisor

Martin, Thomas J.


Significant interest in guidance and counseling at the elementary school level is a fairly recent development. Before the 1960's, there were only a relatively few counselors in the elementary schools. Few professionals in the field devoted any significant amount of attention to guidance and counseling at the elementary school level, and only a small number were engaged in research and in publishing articles related to counseling elementary school children. Universities offered courses of studies geared principally toward preparation of counselors for secondary and post-secondary school positions, with little or no specific attention to the elementary school level. Throughout the decades of the sixties and the seventies there has been a dramatic change in the status of elementary school counseling. Elementary school professionals now have their own Journal: "Elementary School Guidance and Counseling," instead of only an occasional article in another publication. Universities are now preparing counselors specifically for this area. With the increasing interest in and expansion of counseling in the elementary school, more texts have been published which are concerned with guidance...