Journal of Biomechanics
The purpose of this study was to determine associations between horizontal ground reaction force (GRF) kinetics and energy flow (EF) variables in youth baseball players. Twenty-four youth baseball players pitched fastballs in an indoor laboratory while motion capture and force plate data were collected. Horizontal GRF variables were extracted (peak GRF and GRF impulse) while EF was calculated by integrating magnitudes of mechanical powers transferred into and out of the pelvis, trunk, and arm segments via joint force power (JFP) and joint moment power (JMP) components. Peak propulsive GRF of the drive (back) leg correlated with EF into proximal segments, whereas peak braking GRF of the stride (lead) leg correlated with EF into distal segments. Furthermore, peak GRF of the drive leg and GRF impulse of both legs correlated with the JFP components of EF into the pelvis and trunk segments. In contrast, peak GRF and GRF impulse of the stride leg both correlated with the JMP components of EF into the arm segment. These results suggest that horizontal GRF impulse from the drive and stride leg contribute to EF between major segments of the lower and upper extremity. In addition, these results also suggest that propulsion kinetics of the drive leg play a role in transferring linear power via the pelvis and trunk segments in the throwing direction of the pitch, whereas braking kinetics of the stride leg play a role in creating rotational power that is transferred between the trunk and arm segment via the shoulder joint.
Howenstein, Jacob; Kipp, Kristof; and Sabick, Michelle B., "Peak Horizontal Ground Reaction Forces and Impulse Correlate with Segmental Energy Flow in Youth Baseball Pitchers" (2020). Exercise Science Faculty Research and Publications. 182.