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Taylor & Francis

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Journal of Sports Sciences

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DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2022.2121022


This study used principal component analysis (PCA) of waveforms to extract movement patterns from hip and knee angle time-series data; and determined if the extracted movement patterns were predictors of ball velocity during a soccer kick. Twenty-three female and nineteen male professional soccer players performed maximal effort instep kicks while motion capture and post-impact ball velocities data were recorded. Three-dimensional hip and knee joint angle time-series data were calculated from the beginning of the kicking leg’s backswing phase until the end of the follow-through phase and entered into separate PCAs for females and males. Three principal components (PC) (i.e., movement patterns) were extracted and PC scores were calculated. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to establish correlations between hip and knee PC scores and kicking velocity. Results showed better kicking performance in male players was associated with a greater difference between the hip extension at the end of the backswing/beginning of the leg cocking phases and hip flexion at the end of the follow-through phase (r = −0.519, p = 0.023) and a delayed internal rotation of the hip (r = 0.475, p = 0.040). No significant correlations between ball velocity and hip and knee kinematics were found for female players.


Accepted version. Journal of Sports Sciences, Vol. 40, No. 17 (2022): 1919-1930. DOI. © 2022 Taylor & Francis. Used with permission.

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