Document Type




Publication Date



American Chemical Society

Source Publication

Analytical Chemistry

Source ISSN



A new, rapid methodology for trace analysis using solid-phase extraction is described. The two-step methodology is based on the concentration of an analyte onto a membrane disk and on the determination by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of the amount of analyte extracted on the disk surface. This method, which is adaptable to a wide range of analytes, has been used for monitoring ppm levels of iodine and iodide in spacecraft water. Iodine is used as a biocide in spacecraft water. For these determinations, a water sample is passed through a membrane disk by means of a 10-mL syringe that is attached to a disk holder assembly. The disk, which is a polystyrene−divinylbenzene composite, is impregnated with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), which exhaustively concentrates iodine as a yellow iodine−PVP complex. The amount of concentrated iodine is then determined in only 2 s by using a hand-held diffuse reflectance spectrometer by comparing the result with a calibration curve based on the Kubelka−Munk function. The same general procedure can be used to determine iodide levels after its facile and exhaustive oxidation to iodine by peroxymonosulfate (i.e., Oxone reagent). For samples containing both analytes, a two-step procedure can be used in which the iodide concentration is calculated from the difference in iodine levels before and after treatment of the sample with peroxymonosulfate. With this methodology, iodine and iodide levels in the 0.1−5.0 ppm range can be determined with a total workup time of ∼60 s with a RSD of ∼6%.


Accepted version. Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 74, No. 1 (2002): 185-190. DOI. © 2002 American Chemical Society. Used with permission.

Matteo P. Arena was affiliated with Iowa State University, Ames at the time of publication.