Morphological and anatomical development in the Vitaceae. VIII. Comparative development of three Cyphostemma (Vitaceae) species reveals important vegetative and reproductive differences among the species
Canadian Journal of Botany
Vegetative and floral development of Cyphostemma simulans (C.A. Small) Wild & Drummond, Cyphostemma juttae (Dinter & Gilg) Descoings, and Cyphostemma mappia (Lam) Galet were compared using epi-illumination light microscopy and paraffin sectioning. Cyphostemma simulans is a liana with leaf-opposed tendrils and inflorescences, which both arise from the shoot apical meristem, whereas the other two species are shrubs that lack tendrils and their main shoot terminates in an inflorescence. A shoot apical meristem of C. simulans can be overtopped by an inflorescence, making the architecture appear to develop like a sympodium, which is the architecture shared by the other two species. On the other hand, a terminal inflorescence of C. juttae or C. mappia can be placed in a leaf-opposed position by a precocious axillary branch, making the architecture appear to develop like a monopodium, which is the typical architecture of the Vitaceae. The floral development of all three species is similar in early ontogeny, except for a difference in calyx development between C. mappia and the other two species. Later developmental differences of the septum and gynoecium, in addition to flower colour and phenology, are distinct characteristics that distinguish flowers of each species. Therefore, this study is the first to demonstrate differences in the floral characteristics of Cyphostemma. In addition, it shows how each architecture type (monopodium or sympodium) can resemble the other and so provides stronger evidence about how the unique architecture of the Vitaceae has originated.