Document Type


Publication Date




Source Publication

Journal of Business Research

Source ISSN



Examining the effects of what consumers actually know (i.e., objective knowledge) is an important gap in front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition research. In experiments with over 2,000 primary food shoppers, we examine the moderating impact of objective nutrition knowledge on key FOP nutrition symbols (Stop Sign labels, Traffic-Light labels, and a control) for effects on nutrient perceptions, nutrition use accuracy, disease risk, brand attitudes, and purchase intentions. Results support the effectiveness of the Stop Sign label over the Traffic Light label for key outcome measures, with the Traffic Light label performing better on nutrition use accuracy. Importantly, those with greater objective nutrition knowledge performed better than those with lower knowledge, controlling for subjective knowledge and demographics. These results are robust across three food nutrition profiles (healthy, moderately healthy, unhealthy), and more accentuated for the unhealthy profile. Serial mediation analyses are offered, as well as implications for marketing practice, theory, and public health.


Accepted version. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 128 (May 2021): 140-155. DOI. © 2021 Elsevier. Used with permission.

andrews_14850acc.docx (298 kB)
ADA Accessible Version

Included in

Marketing Commons