Document Type




Publication Date



Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)

Source Publication

IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control

Source ISSN



This paper presents a control design method for determining proportional-integral-type controllers satisfying specifications on gain margin, phase margin, and an upper bound on the (complementary) sensitivity for a finite set of plants. The approach can be applied to plants that are stable or unstable, plants given by a model or measured data, and plants of any order, including plants with delays. The algorithm is efficient and fast, and as such can be used in near real-time to determine controller parameters (for online modification of the plant model including its uncertainty and/or the specifications). The method gives an optimal controller for a practical definition of optimality. Furthermore, it enables the graphical portrayal of design tradeoffs in a single plot, highlighting the effects of the gain margin, complementary sensitivity bound, low frequency sensitivity and high frequency sensor noise amplification.


Accepted version. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 48, No. 11 (November 2003): 2069-2072. DOI. © 2003 IEEE. Used with permission.

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