Document Type




Format of Original

6 p.

Publication Date



Informa Healthcare

Source Publication

Issues in Mental Health Nursing

Source ISSN


Original Item ID

doi: 10.3109/01612840.2011.600808


The number of elders who relocate to retirement communities is increasing exponentially, and their ability to exercise free choice, personal control, and autonomy has been associated with relocation adjustment and positive outcomes in regard to physical, emotional, and social well-being. Although a measure of relocation controllability (the degree of personal control associated with the move) exists, there is limited evidence of its psychometric adequacy. This study tested the reliability and validity of the Pressure to Move Scale (PTMS). A convenience sample of 104 American elders who relocated to six Northeast Ohio retirement communities was recruited. Study participants completed the nine-item PTMS and two validation measures during structured interviews. Cronbach's alpha was .71. Homogeneity was supported by item-to-total correlations between .30 and .70, except for two items. Deletion of the item asking about the elder's first impression of relocation improved the alpha to .74. The PTMS was correlated in the expected direction with positive cognitions (r = −.37, p < .01) and relocation adjustment (r = −.62, p < .01), indicating convergent validity. Factor extraction generated three factors, the first reflecting “internal” control factors and the second reflecting “external” control factors; a third factor, containing two items with low item-to-total correlations, reflected another level of “external” control. With preliminary evidence of its reliability and validity, this scale can be a useful tool for screening for pressure to move or involuntary relocation among older adults so that negative outcomes associated with relocation can be prevented through tailored interventions. Read More:


Accepted version. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 32, No. 11 (2011): 711-716. DOI. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Used with permission.

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