Document Type




Format of Original

9 p.

Publication Date




Source Publication

International Journal of Older People Nursing

Source ISSN


Original Item ID

doi: 10.1111/j.1748-3743.2012.00341.x


Background.  The population of older people in both the United States and Egypt is expected to double by the year 2030. With ageing, chronic illnesses increase and many older people need to relocate to retirement communities. Research has shown that positive cognitions and resourcefulness are positively correlated with adaptive functioning and better adjustment.

Aims and objectives.  The purpose of this study was to examine and compare relocation controllability, positive cognitions, resourcefulness and relocation adjustment between American and Egyptian older people living in retirement communities. The purpose of this cultural comparison is to gain insight into influencing factors in each culture that might lead to interventions to help relocated older adults in both cultures adjust to their new surroundings.

Design and method.  A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to compare relocation controllability, positive cognitions, resourcefulness and relocation adjustment of a convenience sample of American older people (n = 104) and a convenience sample of Egyptian older people (n = 94). The study was a secondary analysis of two studies of older people residing in six retirement communities in Northeast Ohio and in five retirement communities in Alexandria, Egypt.

Results.  Examination of mean scores and standard deviations on the measure of positive cognitions using independent sample t-tests indicated that on average, the American older people reported more positive cognitions (t (131·16) = 11·29, P < 0·001), more relocation controllability (t (196) = −6·78, P < 0·001) and more relocation adjustment (t (196) = 9·42, P < 0·001) than the Egyptian older people. However, there was no significant difference between Egyptians and Americans in resourcefulness (t (174·16) = −0·97, P > 0·05).

Conclusion: The results provide direction for the development of positive cognition interventions and engaging older people in the decision-making process to help them to adjust to relocation.

Implications for practice.  Positive thinking and resourcefulness training interventions can be used by nurses to help relocated older people to adjust to the stress of relocation to retirement communities. These interventions can be used on primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Primary interventions can help to prevent the stress of relocation before happening by helping older people to use their positive thinking and their resources and work with them before relocating to retirement communities. Secondary prevention can be used by nurses to help older people who have already relocated to retirement communities and have already experienced stress of relocation to help them out by decreasing the stress that they are suffering. Tertiary prevention can be used to prevent further stress and deterioration for those who have suffered physical and psychological symptoms as a result of relocation.


Accepted version. International Journal of Older People Nursing, Vol 8, No. 3 (September 2013): 244-252. DOI. © 2013 Wiley. Used with permission.

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