Document Type




Format of Original

8 p.

Publication Date




Source Publication

Journal of Nurse Midwifery and Women's Health

Source ISSN


Original Item ID

doi: 10.1016/j.jmwh.2004.07.001


Calendar-based methods are not usually considered effective or useful methods of family planning among health professionals. However, new “high-” and “low”-tech calendar methods have been developed, which are easy to teach, to use, and may be useful in helping couples avoid pregnancy. The low-tech models are based on a fixed-day calendar system. The high-tech models are based on monitoring urinary metabolites of female reproductive hormones. Both systems have high levels of satisfaction. This article describes these new models of family planning and the research on their effectiveness. The author proposes a new algorithm for determining the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle for either achieving or avoiding pregnancy.


Accepted version. Journal of Nurse Midwifery and Women's Health, Vol. 50, No. 1 (January 2005): 31-38. DOI. © 2005 Wiley. Used with permission.

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Nurse Midwifery and Women's Health. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Nurse Midwifery and Women's Health, VOL 50, ISSUE 1, (January 2005) DOI.

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