Document Type




Publication Date




Source Publication

Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing

Source ISSN



Objective To analyze the effectiveness of an online, nurse-managed natural family planning (NFP) program among breastfeeding women and subgroups of these women. Design Longitudinal comparative cohort study. Setting A university-based online NFP education program and menstrual cycle charting system. Participants Women (N = 816) with a mean age of 30.3 years (standard deviation = 4.5) who registered to use the online NFP system and indicated they were breastfeeding. Methods Participants tracked their fertile times with an electronic hormone fertility monitor (EHFM), cervical mucus monitoring, or both. All unintended pregnancies were evaluated by professional nurses. Results The correct use pregnancy rates were 3 per 100 users over 12 cycles of use, and typical rates were 14 per 100 at 12 cycles of use. At 12 cycles of use, total pregnancy rates were 16 per 100 for electronic hormone fertility monitor users (n = 380), 81 per 100 among mucus-only users (n = 45), and 14 per 100 for electronic hormone fertility monitor plus mucus users (n = 391). Conclusion Use of a nurse-managed online NFP program for women can be effective to help women avoid pregnancy while breastfeeding, especially with correct and consistent use.


Accepted version. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, Vol. 46, No. 4 (July-August 2017): e129-e137. DOI. © 2018 Elsevier. Used with permission.

fehring_10679acc.docx (175 kB)
ADA accessible version

Included in

Nursing Commons