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World Neurosurgery

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DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2022.07.138



Individual patient and socioeconomic factors are underexplored prognostic factors for glioblastoma (GBM). Frailty, a measure of physiological vulnerability, and area deprivation, a measure of socioeconomic status, are easily obtained during the preoperative evaluation. These metrics are predictors of outcome and access to treatments for other cancers. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of frailty and neighborhood disadvantage with outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed GBM.


This was a retrospective review of newly diagnosed patients with GBM undergoing surgery from 2015 through 2020. The 5-factor modified frailty index and national area deprivation index were determined for each patient.


There were 244 patients. Compared with patients with “some or no” frailty, patients with “significant” frailty had a shorter median survival: 273 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 126–339) versus 393 days (95% CI 317–458), P = 0.008. The median survival for patients living in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods, 210 days (95% CI 134–334), was significantly lower than for those living in the least, 384 days (95% CI 239–484), P = 0.17. Twenty-five percent of patients living in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods did not receive postoperative chemoradiation compared with 11% of patients in the least disadvantaged neighborhoods, P = 0.046. Similarly, patients of color were less likely to receive standard of care chemoradiation than White patients.


Increasing frailty and neighborhood disadvantage predict worse outcomes in newly diagnosed patients with GBM undergoing surgery. Patients living in the most-deprived neighborhoods are less likely to receive postoperative chemoradiation. Identification of nontraditional predictors of treatment access and survival will inform mitigation strategies and improve outcomes.


Accepted version. World Neurosurgery, Vol. 166 (October 2022): e949-e957. DOI. © 2022 Elsevier. Used with permission.

Available for download on Monday, October 02, 2023

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