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Publication Date



Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Source Publication

Advances in Skin & Wound Care

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OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cytotoxicity and bactericidal effects of chloramine-T.

METHODS: In vitro study of various concentrations and exposure times to preparations containing human fibroblasts or 1.5 x 108 colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) of 3 gram-positive bacteria-Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S aureus, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis-and 2 gram-negative bacteria-Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-with and without fetal bovine serum present.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentage reduction of bacterial growth and percentage of viable fibroblasts 48 hours after exposure.

RESULTS: All gram-positive growth was reduced by 95% to 100%, regardless of dose, with or without serum. E coli (gram-negative; with/without serum) was reduced 94% to 100% at antiseptic concentrations of 300 and 400 ppm. At 200 ppm, E coli growth was fully inhibited without serum present and by 50% with serum. P aeruginosa (gram-negative) was not significantly affected under any conditions. At 100 and 200 ppm, cell viability remained greater than 90% under all experimental conditions. A 300-ppm, 3-minute exposure to chloramine-T resulted in cell viability of up to 70%, with longer exposures producing lower viabilities. Serum did not affect cell viability in any condition.

CONCLUSIONS: In vitro, chloramine-T at 200 ppm for 5 to 20 minutes was effective against 3 virulent gram-positive bacteria without fibroblast damage. At 300 ppm and 3 and 5 minutes, 30% of fibroblasts were damaged and 95% to 100 % of E coli were inhibited, respectively.


Accepted version. Advances in Skin & Wound Care, Vol. 20, No. 6 (June 2007): 331-345. DOI. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Used with permission.

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