Format of Original
Elsevier (WB Saunders)
Clinics in Sports Medicine
Original Item ID
doi: 10.1016/j.csm.2015.08.012; PubMed Central, PMID: 26614470
Pain associated with the long head of the biceps (LHB) brachii seems to be increasingly recognized in the past 4 to 5 years. The LHB has long been considered a troublesome pain generator in the shoulder. Abnormality involving the LHB brachii has long been an area of debate, with Codman in 1934 even questioning the specificity of the diagnosis of biceps tendinitis. Biceps tendon abnormality is often associated with rotator cuff impingement. Shoulder pain originating from the biceps tendon can be debilitating, causing a severe decrease in shoulder function. As a result of the frequent clinical presentation of biceps pain, there is currently a great deal of interest regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of biceps abnormality. This article describes a classification system of LHB pain and discusses nonoperative treatment concepts and techniques for the painful LHB.