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The Pediatric Self-Management Model provides an overview of how behavioral factors influence children’s chronic medical illnesses. This general framework is used to organize the present review of how self-management behaviors, contextual factors, and processes impact health outcomes for adolescent youth with type 1 diabetes. Adherence has been widely studied in the diabetes literature, and there are consistent findings demonstrating associations between aspects of self-management, adherence, and metabolic control, yet there are still equivocal approaches to adherence assessment methodology (e.g. global versus specific measures). Metabolic control is a hallmark health outcome for youth with type 1 diabetes, but additional outcomes need to be further explored. Future research should utilize the Pediatric Self-Management Model’s operational definitions to guide empirically-supported interventions for youth with type 1 diabetes.