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Arab Muslim women were nearly twice as likely as Arab Muslim men to face verbal assaults in the three years following the 9/11 attacks. When these assaults occurred in public space, a woman wearing hijab (Muslim head scarf) was present more than 90 percent of the time. Women wearing hijab have been spit at, threatened, hit, and told to go home, even though many of these women were born in the United States.
Cainkar, Louise, "Violence Unveiled" (2005). Social and Cultural Sciences Faculty Research and Publications. 6.