Date of Award

Summer 2000

Document Type

Thesis - Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Biomedical Engineering

First Advisor

Harris, Gerald F.

Second Advisor

Pintar, Frank A.

Third Advisor

Marks, Richard M.


The act of bipedal locomotion is a defining characteristic of the human species, in which every portion of the lower extremity plays an important role. The foot and ankle are especially important in this process, as they represent the interface between the upright body and the walking surface. An understanding of the mechanisms of these structures is therefore necessary for a better understanding of human gait. Resources are needed which provide information on both the motions of the lower leg and foot (kinematics), and the forces and moments encountered by these structures (kinetics). Currently, an established model is available for three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the foot and ankle for both normal and pathologic populations. The development of a three-dimensional kinetic model is the next logical step in developing this technology. This thesis represents preliminary work in the development of such a model. Posterior tibial tendon insufficiency (also known as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, or PTTD), is the major cause of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. It includes a wide range of disorders, from mild pain and swelling to tendon rupture to a fixed flatfoot deformity. Hindfoot eversion and external rotation of the forefoot are clinically noted manifestations of the disorder. A kinematic foot-ankle analysis of subjects with PTTD is currently underway at the Medical College of Wisconsin. It is desired that the model developed in this thesis be used to evaluate a subset of these subjects kinetically.



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