Date of Award

Spring 2014

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor


Second Advisor

Hashimoto, Lance

Third Advisor

Berzins, David W.


Introduction: Nickel-titanium rotary files were originally developed to allow for greater flexibility when instrumenting root canals. The increased flexibility of nickel-titanium instruments allowed operators to negotiate canal curvatures with greater ease. File design is continually changing. Manufacturers are trying to produce files that will work more efficiently and safely. Knowing the properties of files marketed is especially important in helping to choose an appropriate file system. Current ISO standards require force measurements at a static point along the file. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the flexibility of four different nickel-titanium files at three different points along the file.

Materials and Methods: Flexibility of four different nickel-titanium rotary files (EndoSequence, ProFile, Vortex, and Vortex Blue) was measured. Each file was clamped at 3mm, 5mm, or 7mm (n = 10/length/file) and a universal testing machine was used to bend the files to a maximum deflection of 4.5mm. All data were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey test (P = 0.05) to determine any significant differences.

Results: Statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences were present. In general, ProFile was the stiffest, displaying the greatest force and bending moment values. Vortex Blue was significantly more flexible, with lower force needed for deflection and bending moments.

Conclusion: Vortex Blue files showed greater flexibility compared with the other nickel-titanium rotary files studied.