Format of Original
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine
Original Item ID
Objective: To determine the prevalence of the 3 components of the female athlete triad [disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, low bone mineral density (BMD)] and their relationships with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in professional dancers.
Design: Prospective study.
Setting: Academic institution in the Midwest.
Participants: Twenty-two professional ballet dancers volunteered for this study.
Interventions: The prevalence of the female athlete triad and its relationship to endothelial dysfunction.
Main Outcome Measures: Subjects completed questionnaires to assess disordered eating and menstrual status/history. They also completed a 3-day food record and wore an accelerometer for 3 days to determine energy availability. Serum baseline thyrotropin, prolactin, and hormonal concentrations were obtained. Bone mineral density and body composition were measured with a GE Lunar Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Endothelial function was determined as flow-mediated vasodilation measured by high-frequency ultrasound in the brachial artery. An increase in brachial diameter
Results: Seventeen dancers (77%) had evidence of low/negative energy availability. Thirty-two percent had disordered eating (EDE-Q score). Thirty-six percent had menstrual dysfunction and 14% were currently using hormone contraception. Twenty-three percent had evidence of low bone density (Z-score < -1.0). Sixty-four percent had abnormal brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (
Conclusions: Endothelial dysfunction was correlated with reduced BMD, menstrual dysfunction, and low serum estrogen. These findings may have profound implications for cardiovascular and bone health in professional women dancers.