Document Type


Publication Date



World Scientific Publishing

Source Publication

Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences

Source ISSN



High resolution optical endoscopes arc increasingly used in diagnosis of various medical conditions of internal organs, such as the cervix and gastrointestinal (GI) tracts, but they are too expensive for use in resource-poor settings. On the other hand, smartphones with high resolution cameras and Internet access have become more affordable, enabling them to diffuse into most rural areas and developing countries in the past decade. In this paper, we describe a smartphone microendoscope that can take fluorescence images with a spatial resolution of 3.1 μm. Images collected from ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo samples using the device are also presented. The compact and cost-effective smartphone microendoscope may be envisaged as a powerful tool for detecting pre-cancerous lesions of internal organs in low and middle-income countries (LMICs).


Accepted version. Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences, Vol. 09, No. 5 (2016): 1650046. DOI. © 2016 World Scientific Publishing. Used with permission.

Bing Yu was affiliated with University of Akron at the time of publication.

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