Staphylococcus aureus Resistance Patterns in Wisconsin

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Marshfield Clinic

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Clinical Medicine & Research

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Original Item ID

DOI: 10.3121/cmr.2019.1503


Objective: Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance patterns on a local level can reveal paradigms not obvious on a regional or national scale. Data collection from this perspective may potentially impact local prescribing patterns and empiric treatment guidelines. The objective of this study was to establish a baseline Staphylococcus aureus antibiogram for the state of Wisconsin and to elucidate potential geographic and demographic factors associated with antimicrobial resistance.

Design: Multi-center laboratory surveillance, with testing at a single site utilizing standardized media and susceptibility testing protocols.

Methods: 309 isolates of clinically-significant S. aureus were collected from hospital microbiology laboratories across Wisconsin in 2018, with distribution across seven geographic regions. Each isolate was tested using reference broth microdilution methods against a panel of 15 antimicrobial agents. Percentage susceptibility data, as well as median and 90th percentile minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, were computed for each antimicrobial agent as a function of geographic region or demographic category.

Results: Increased resistance to penicillin (≥ 86.0% of isolates), erythromycin (≥ 56.8%), cefoxitin (≥ 45.5%), levofloxacin (≥ 25.0%), and clindamycin (≥ 20.5%) was observed in the Southcentral, Lake Winnebago, and Southeast regions of Wisconsin. In addition, isolates phenotypically classified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were found to have increased rates of resistance to clindamycin, erythromycin, and levofloxacin as compared to S. aureus isolates susceptible to cefoxitin. S. aureus isolates demonstrated nearly 100% in vitro susceptibility to ceftaroline, dalbavancin, and telavancin. Statewide S. aureus isolates exhibited a vancomycin MIC90 of 1 μg/mL. S. aureus isolates from patients aged 20–39 years were more likely to demonstrate cefoxitin resistance when compared to other age groups (P ≤ 0.03), while isolates from patients ≥ 80 years were more likely to exhibit resistance to levofloxacin and clindamycin (P ≤ 0.046).

Conclusions: Several antimicrobial agents continue to demonstrate in vitro efficacy against clinical isolates of S. aureus (including MRSA) throughout Wisconsin, including three agents with recently-published susceptibility testing guidelines. However, continued surveillance efforts may be necessary in the Lake Winnebago, Southeast, and Southcentral regions to further assess higher rates of resistance to a number of antimicrobial agents.


Clinical Medicine & Research, Vol. 17, Nos. 3-4 (December 2019): 72-81. DOI.