Format of Original
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine
A solvent-free microsphere sintering technique was developed to fabricate scaffolds with pore size gradient for tissue engineering applications. Poly(D,L-Lactide) microspheres were fabricated through an emulsification method where TiO2 nanoparticles were employed both as particulate emulsifier in the preparation procedure and as surface modification agent to improve bioactivity of the scaffolds. A fine-tunable pore size gradient was achieved with a pore volume of 30 ± 2.6%. SEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR analyses all confirmed the formation of bone-like apatite at the 14th day of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) implying the ability of our scaffolds to bond to living bone tissue. In vitro examination of the scaffolds showed progressive activity of the osteoblasts on the scaffold with evidence of increase in its mineral content. The bioactive scaffold developed in this study has the potential to be used as a suitable biomaterial for bone tissue engineering and hard tissue regeneration.